Gravity Hot Water Recirculating Loops
DEAR TIM: I am not a big fan of cold showers. I have to wait 15 - 20 seconds each morning for hot water to arrive in my shower. It seems like a terrible waste of water and money. Is there a way to avoid this? Can something be done to my ranch house? Is it possible for a DIY'r to accomplish the remedy? H. O.
DEAR H.O.: Brrrrrr! I know the feeling. Cold showers are a bummer. Guess what? We can solve your problem with a simple gravity hot water recirculating loop. They are effective, inexpensive and easy to install.
First, however, I want to put into perspective the waste situation. Clean water is a natural resource and should not be wasted. Until your loop is operational, why not capture the shower water with a bucket? Use it to water plants or to fill your washing machine. The cost of the wasted water is minuscule. Let's assume you pay only 1.5 cents for each cubic foot of water (that is my rate).
If you have 25 feet of 3/4 inch water pipe between your hot water heater and the shower, you waste .076 cubic feet of water each morning or $0.001178. It would take 849 showers for you to waste $1.00 worth of water. Keep that in mind if you choose a fancy way to solve your problem.
"I phoned you about my gravity loop that I recently installed. You clearly indicated what I did wrong. I had the theory and connections right, but the wrong pipe size. I used 1/4 inch copper tubing for the return loop. As you know, it did not work. Per your information I increased it to 3/4 inch pipe. You said 1/2 inch might work, but I didn't want to take the chance. Bingo! - It works beyond what I had hoped for - Instant Hot Water." Bob Chartier, Westland, MI
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"I remodeled about a year ago and read this column on gravity loops. We installed the loop and it works fantastically. There is instant, well almost, hot water on the far end of the house. I would not have believed something so simple could work so well....." Paul Wiegert
Hospitals, hotels, and other large buildings have used hot water recirculating loops for years. Some of these loops use electrical recirculating pumps while others use gravity. Based upon the fact that your water heater is in the basement of your home, Mother Nature is going to do the work for free!
Gravity hot water loops work because the heated water, which is lighter, rises through the loop. As the water cools at the top of the loop, it falls and is thermo-syphoned back into the hot water heater. The water enters the bottom of the heater at the drain valve inlet. This flow of water is
slow but constant.
For a gravity recirculating loop to work properly, the water heater must be located at the bottom of the loop. Ranch houses and two story houses with basements are perfect candidates. Houses built on slabs or that have hot water lines below the water heater must use a simple in-line recirculating pump.
All you need to complete your loop is a return water line from the far end of your hot water line. Locate the end of your existing hot water line. Cut into the pipe at this location. Install a tee fitting. One part of the tee will allow you to reconnect to the hot water line. The other portion of the tee fitting will be the start of the return loop back to the water heater.
Turn off your hot water heater's power supply before you start this project. Then turn off the water leading to the water heater. Drain the hot water heater and remove the drain valve by turning counterclockwise. Install a dielectric union or insulating nipple in place of the valve. This will to reduce corrosion possibilities if you are working with copper or galvanized iron water lines.
To save energy, you must insulate the entire loop. The insulation must start inches above where the hot water line leaves the water heater and must continue along the entire loop as it makes its way through the house and starts its trip back to the water heater. In new construction insulate all of the hot water supply pipe up to each fixture. Do not insulate the last 15 feet of pipe as it gets near the heater. This pipe must be uncovered to drive the convection engine that makes the hot water flow slowly towards this portion of the loop where the water is cooling because of its heat loss through the uninsulated pipe.
The insulation will slow heat transfer but can adversely affect the performance of the loop if you install it over all of the piping. Foam insulation is available which will slide over the pipe as you install it. You can also choose to use premolded fiberglass with a protective coating. The foam insulation is much more user friendly. Remember, to ensure good performance leave insulation off of the last 15 feet of loop piping as it returns to the heater. Be sure this is OK with your local energy code!
If the loop fails to work, water may be flowing backwards through the system from the water heater. You can stop this with a check valve. Install a check valve in the uninsulated part of the loop about 5 feet away from the water heater.
You MUST use a flapper-type check valve, not a spring-loaded one. Spring-loaded check valves will not work and block the slow trickle of water through the loop. Drill a 1/8 inch hole through the flapper so that a small amount of water can flow back to the heater to maintain circulation of the water within the loop. If the loop doesn't seem to work well, slowly increase the diameter of this hole but do not exceed 1/4 inch diameter.
Be sure your heater does not have a heat trap device at the top of the hot water outlet. These are small check valves that stop hot water from drifting up the hot water line when the hot water is not being used. Remove the heat trap device to get the gravity loop to work.