Treated Wood Foundations
DEAR TIM: Several years ago, there was a movement toward the use of wood foundations due to the rising cost of labor and concrete. I toured a couple of newly constructed homes in the Toledo area at the time that had used this technique.
My question is "How have these structures fared over time?" Are they still considered sound and what has become of the idea of wood frame foundations? Are there any contractors using this method actively today? At the time I thought it a good idea, but being the skeptic I am I thought it was better left to someone else to prove the concept. I have built several homes over the years (for my own use) and have given thought to another project. Your thoughts and insight are always appreciated as I am an avid reader of your column in the Toledo Blade. Roger Puppos, Toledo, OH
DEAR ROGER: I absolutely remember that movement promoting wood over masonry for foundations. The thought back then that rushed through my head was the fable about the Three Little Pigs. As many of us know, the big bad wolf ate two of the three little pigs - the ones that used straw and wood to build their homes. The pig that used masonry was not harmed by the wolf.
My problem with the wood foundations was never one concerning engineering. I was convinced a properly constructed wood foundation could easily act as a retaining wall against all soil pressures that were trying to push it over. Wood shoring has been used for years to protect workmen who install piping in deep trenches and those who work in mines.
I have no doubt that the treated wood manufacturers still promote wood as a viable material for foundations. I also believe there are builders who still use wood for foundation work.
My real concern was long-term degradation caused by water and insects. The thought that kept playing in my head like an endless loop of video tape was an image of a workman at a plant that makes treated lumber. There were two episodes in this short documentary.
The first one was of the workman coming to work with a very bad head cold or the flu. In this episode, he starts to blend the chemicals that are used to preserve the wood, but because of his lack of concentration he makes a serious mistake and that batch of lumber does not receive enough chemical treatment.
The wood certified for wood foundations is supposed to contain a higher amount of the preservatives. That's a given. But how do you know if it does?
Episode two is a little different but the result is the same. The workman who mixes the chemicals goes and asks his boss for a raise. The plant manager tells the worker that he is not deserving of a pay increase. The disgruntled worker goes back to the work station and decides to take his anger out on the next load of pressure treated lumber.
I don't doubt for a moment that plants that make pressure treated lumber have quality control measures in place and follow them making sure mistakes don't happen. That is just good business. But mistakes do happen and I have proof.
The questions you have to ask yourself, since you can't easily test the lumber at your job site, might be:
"Is the treatment in this lumber the correct mixture and will it LAST?"
"Was the lumber mislabeled?
"Was the correct amount of preservative used and was the pressure high enough in the vessel?"
In the early 1990's when CCA treated lumber was still being produced, I built a large play structure for my daughter. The main supports were 4x4 posts that I placed directly into the ground and backfilled with the soil. These posts were approved for direct ground burial. The treated lumber came with a lifetime warranty against rot or decay.
Fifteen years later, I took the play structure apart so I could build a large Queen Anne Victorian garden shed for my wife. To my amazement, two of the six 4x4 posts had significant termite damage to that portion that was buried in the ground. To say the least, I felt vindicated about my suspicion that treated lumber was not to be trusted 100 percent of the time.
When it comes to building for a lifetime, I have a tendency to lean on my college degree in geology. Look at the great temples, tombs and castles that are still standing in the world today. One thing they all have in common is they all are made from rock. The Great Pyramids are still standing after thousands of years as are temples in Central and South America. Europe has castles that are hundreds of years old that are still in excellent condition. Remember, concrete is nothing more than artificial rock.